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«دئيسم‏» و اصول نظام سرمايه‏ دارى - soroushhekmat.irsoroushhekmat.ir «دئيسم‏» و اصول نظام سرمايه‏ دارى

در ميان مكاتب مختلف فكرى كه در مورد «خدا» وجود دارد، مى‏توان از الحاد، لاادريگرى، شكاكيت، دئيسم يا (theism) مترادف است. اولى از معادل (deism) در اصل با «خداشناسى طبيعى‏» و توحيد، ياد كرد. واژه دئيسم theos اخذ شده است. devs و دومى از معادل لاتين آن يعنى يونانى كلمه خدا يعنى
اولين بار اين واژه در كتاب «ساختار مسيحيت‏» از نظريه‏پرداز كالوينيسى، پيرويرت مورد استفاده قرار گرفت، وى دئيست را اينگونه تعريف مى‏نمايد: «كسى كه به خداوند به عنوان خالق بهشت و زمين معتقد است. اما منكر عيسى مسيح و تعاليم او مى‏باشد و هيچ‏گونه تلقى از دين وحيانى ندارد.»
در واقع، دئيسم، جريان مذهبى مى‏باشد كه تنها متكى به دليل عقلى است و ارتباطات مابعدالطبيعى را مطرود مى‏داند و معتقد است كه عقل انسان مى‏تواند بدون وحى و تعهد به مذهب، به وجود خداوند آگاهى و اذعان داشته باشد. جريان مزبور در قرن 17 و 18، به عنوان شكلى از حركتهاى ضد ارتودكسى دينى، مبتنى بر عقل شناخته مى‏شد.
از ديگر مكاتب در باب خدا در غرب، «توحيد» است، كه تنها يك خداى متعال را قبول دارد كه اطاعتى مطلق از انسان مى‏طلبد. اين مفهوم در عهد عتيق اين‏گونه مطرح شده است:
«اى اسرائيل بشنو! يهوه، خداى ما يهوه واحد است. پس يهوه، خداى خود را به تمامى جهان و تمامى قوت خود محبت نما.»
همان گونه كه اين عبارات تاريخ ساز نشان مى‏دهد درك و شناخت عبرانيان از خدا كه در مسيحيت نيز ادامه يافت، اساسا توحيدى است.

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